Types of Fouls
The game of basketball has a number of different types of fouls. Common personal fouls are those committed in the flow of the game by one player against another. Technical fouls are usually committed outside the flow of the game, but are differentiated as direct technicals for unsportsmanlike conduct and indirect technicals for such things as calling timeout when the team has run out of them or hanging on the rim after a dunk. Flagrant and intentional fouls are also part of the game. All fouls, except for indirect technical fouls, also count as team fouls.
First Six Fouls
The first six team fouls in each half are treated differently than those that follow after a team hits seven team fouls. A player who is fouled in the act of shooting the basketball at any time in the game is awarded two free throws, or three if he is behind the three-point-line. A non-shooting foul that is committed before a team reaches seven team fouls results in the team that was fouled taking the ball out of bounds. There are no free throws rewarded. Technical fouls, intentional fouls and flagrant fouls always send a team to the free throw line for two shots.
The seventh team foul in either half in a game earns the opposing team the right to shoot free throws, regardless of whether the foul was committed against a player who was shooting or not. When a team commits its seventh, eighth and ninth fouls in either half, the other team shoots a one-and-one. That means that the player gets to shoot a free throw and if he makes it, he gets to shoot a second one. If he misses the first shot, the ball is live and the rebound can be grabbed by either team. The double bonus kicks in on the 10th foul of the half. Once that happens, each subsequent foul by that team results in two free throws for the opposing team.
For the purpose of counting team fouls, when there is an overtime period or multiple periods, they are considered an extension of the second half.